SWS Journal of EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps <p><strong>SWS Journal of Earth &amp; Planetary Sciences (EPS)</strong> is a quarterly multidisciplinary peer-reviewed academic research Journal, published online in Vienna, Austria by SGEM WORLD SCIENCE (SWS) International Society.<br><br>Our journal is issued both on-line and on paper and is completely open access (<strong>Online ISSN 2664-0090</strong>), thereby aspiring to facilitate the communication among scientists from all around the world and to encourage individual researchers in publishing their scientific work.</p> SWS Society en-US SWS Journal of EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES 2664-0090 GROUND MOTION PREDICTION AT THE DAM SITES IN SW ROMANIA FOR MODERATE VRANCEA SUBCRUSTAL EARTHQUAKES https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2020.1.1.placinta <p>The seismic hazard studies of the last 30 years have been largely carried out taking into account the needs of the construction engineers, by linking the specific quantities of soil movement with the physical parameters determined instrumentally, namely, with the maximum values of soil acceleration. At present, interest in the results of hazard studies has increased and has extended to other areas such as insurance or design companies, environmental protection, etc. A fundamental element in the estimation of seismic hazard is the variation of the amplitude of the movement of the soil according to the distance, magnitude and local conditions. To understand and prevent the effects of the strong Vrancea earthquakes in the dam sites located in the South West of Romania, we study the seismic waves attenuation relations using the accelerations recorded by the national network of K2 accelerometers, following the moderate Vrancea intermediate earthquakes. The study area includes the largest agglomeration of dams in Romania, with almost 100 dams out of the 250 large dams. One of the most important specific requirements towards dams' safety is the seismic risk and hazard assessment and the computation of attenuation relationships is one of the most important steps of the work. The main objective of the present work is the evaluation of the specific attenuation relationships of the seismic wave propagating from Vrancea subcrustal focus toward south-west, with direct application for the dams situated in the area.</p> Anica Otilia Placinta Emilia Popescu Iren-Adelina Moldovan Mircea Radulian Andrei Mihai Copyright (c) 2020 SWS Journal of EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 1 16 29 10.35603/eps2020/issue1.01 APPLICATIONS OF SPACE GEODESY METHODS IN ROMANIA https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2020.1.2.mateciuc <p>The studies for Recent Crustal Movements by the aid of space geodesy techniques are integrated into the researches on the Earth’s crust dynamics, as a reflection of the complex geodynamic phenomena that occur in the crust and in the subcrustal lithosphere. In addition to the fundamental nature, the research in this field presents a practical characteristic, competing alongside geology and geophysics to the shaping of new energy sources or solid mineral substances, to the determination of the soil stability degree in inhabited areas or in those in which large industrial targets and utilities are intended to be placed in. The knowledge of movements affecting the Earth’s upper crust, movements that precede, accompany or follow the earthquakes, is also a topical issue. The paper presents some of the most important research projects developed in&nbsp;Romania, which were based on the measurement data obtained exclusively by space geodesy methods. There are presented some of the most significant results achieved in the framework of each research project together with the limitations imposed by the used acquisition technology. In chronological order are mentioned first GPS measurements in Romania, started in 1994, in a network centered on the Dealul Piscului observatory, followed by Romania's involvement in a regional geodynamic project, CERGOP and finally a major international project, CRC461, also continued after 2003 with the continuous help of the University of Delft (Nederland), a project that led to the development of an extended network of GPS permanent stations in Romania, all in operating status and whose results are a valuable support for the geodynamic studies. There are made brief references to the first application of the Finite Element Method in a GPS subnet from the Vrancea extended network together with some of the most important obtained results. The strong earthquakes with their catastrophic consequences, which have taken place in recent years on a global scale, similar to that of 4 March 1977 in Romania, have fully demonstrated the need for the knowledge of these types of crust movements in order to contribute, together with other methods, to solve the very complex problem of the earthquake forecasting.</p> Narvic Doru Mateciuc Andrei Bălă Copyright (c) 2020 SWS Journal of EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 1 30 43 10.35603/eps2020/issue1.02 OHS RISK ASSESSMENT – A CASE STUDY FOR UNDERGROUND COAL MINING ELECTRICIANS https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2020.1.3.pasculescu <p>Risk assessment is a concept introduced for analysing the safety level in workplaces in order to assess if enough and proper precautions have been taken or if their number and quality should be improved so that to prevent hazardous situations. The underground coal mining industry is very hazardous, facing serious fatalities related to work, workplaces and workers as a consequence of the high-risk processes carried out underground and of the hazardous toxic and explosive atmosphere.</p> <p>The use of electrical equipment in such hazardous atmospheres (underground or surface) presents a series of particularities, the workers operating this equipment being exposed to electrical injury. The starting point for the optimization of the activity for preventing work accidents and occupational diseases in a system is represented by the risk assessment of that specific system. Regardless if it is a workplace, a workshop or an enterprise, such an analysis allows the ranking of risks depending on their dimension and the efficient allocation of resources for priority measures. Risk assessment involves identifying all risk factors in the analysed system and quantifying their size based on the combination of two parameters: the severity and frequency of the maximum possible consequence on the human body. This results in partial risk levels for each risk factor, respectively global risk levels for the entire system analysed.</p> <p>In order to facilitate the fulfilment of the legal obligations of the employers in the field of risk assessment of accidents and occupational disease, a relatively large number of methods have been designed and used. Of the many methods used worldwide for assessing the risk of accidents, within this article is used a risk assessment method developed by a Romanian Institute for Research and Development in Labour Safety Bucharest, the paper dealing with a case study in an underground coal hard coal mine carried out for presenting the practicality of this method, in case of assessing the risks of electrical injury of mining electricians.</p> Vlad Mihai Pasculescu Dragos Pasculescu Marius Simion Morar Marius Cornel Suvar Ligia Ioana Tuhut Copyright (c) 2020 SWS Journal of EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 1 1 15 10.35603/eps2020/issue1.03 INFLUENCE OF THE WORLD INNOVATION PROJECT “INDUSTRY 4.0” ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ENERGY SECTOR https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2020.1.4.kavkaeva <p>The aim of the article is to attempt to identify the profound changes taking place in the global and Russian energy sectors. One of the key drivers of the new development paradigm is the active implementation of the Industry 4.0 project elements in the fuel and energy complex, which is comprehensive and relies on digital technologies. The features of the global innovation project “Industry 4.0” and, in particular, the digitalization of the oil and gas sector were studied. The possibility of transition of the Russian energy complex to a new development paradigm is also analyzed, it consists in the implementation of elements of the Industry 4.0 project. The problems of the Russian energy sector on the transition to a new development model, which are associated with the features of its production, market and institutional structures, are identified. The theory of value chains in the fuel and energy complex and its upgrade is separately studied. The main niche in the Russian energy sector is highlighted, in which the development of the Industry 4.0 paradigm is possible.</p> <p>Nore: The paper is an extended version of the article presented at the conference SGEM Vienna Green 2019 Conference (9-11 December, 2019), Austria. Reference citation: https://doi.org/10.5593/sgem2019V/1.4<br>The title, abstract was changed in the article / The degree of knowledge of the chains added in the fuel and energy complex was also considered — 3- 4 pp.</p> Olga Kavkaeva Irina Filimonova Elena Goosen Evgeniya Pakhomova Sergey Nikitenko Copyright (c) 2020 SWS Journal of EARTH & PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-02-01 2020-02-01 2 1 44 54 10.35603/eps2020/issue1.04 THE EFFECT OF MICROFRACTURING IN GABBRO-DOLERITES ON THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.4.shekov <p>Simple and cheap methods for the study of building stone deposits for the production of blocks of commercial size can be used to make geological work more efficient. However, physical processes in a massif are hard to understand when doing geophysical research, and the effect of microstructural parameters, mainly the microfracturing of rocks, on geophysical field indices is poorly understood.</p> <p>The authors have studied the impact of microfracturing on the physico-mechanical properties on coarse- to giant-grained rapakivi granites from the Salmi massif, Fennoscandian Shield. The goal of the present study is to assess the physical and physico-mechanical parameters in fine- and medium-grained quartz-free rocks.</p> <p>The authors have studied the various physical and physico-mechanical indices of gabbro-dolerites from the Ropruchei sill (Fennoscandian Shield, within the deposit prospected and revealed the effect of microfracturing indices on them.</p> <p>The study of these properties have shown that microfracturing in gabbro-dolerites is an essential factor which forms the physical parameters of a rock. The testing of this rock type has shown the rate of travel of an elastic wave is clearly related to the microfracturing of samples.</p> <p>The magnetic properties of gabbro-dolerite are due to high concentrations of titanomagnetite, the mineral grains of which formed upon the crystallization of magma during its interstratal intrusion. The distribution of titanomagnetite, based on size and concentration in the rock, depends on liquation conditions in the active stress field. The dependence of the microfracturing of gabbro-dolerites on their iron concentration (FeO+Fe2O3) shows that these «damages» appeared at a ‘brittle” stage in the evolution of the massif in the form of microfractures, the structural parameters of which have inherited the parameters of the stress and deformation field which existed in the massif at that time and which accumulated iron.</p> <p>As a result, microfracturing has a considerable effect on the parameters of the electromagnetic indices of the massif by accumulating iron oxides in the pores, and the higher the index, the higher the geophysical medium indices.</p> <p>Understanding of the physical problem, which accompanies the formation of a gabbro-dolerite complex, helps conduct the geophysical study of a massif, interpret data more objectively and more accurately delineate massive zones in the medium that could be used as high-quality building materials.</p> Vitali Shekov O. Myasnikova Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 2 1 39 50 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.04 INTELLIGENT ROOFTOP GREENHOUSES AND GREEN SKYLINE CITIES https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.2.balas <p>The paper proposes a new concept of green building, able to oppose the global warming, the Intelligent Rooftop Greenhouse iRTG, as a development of the Integrated Rooftop Greenhouse IRTG. Our approach is to re­place conventional roofs with IRTGs, which are constructively con­nected with the interior of the building by flows of energy, gazes (mainly O<sub>2</sub> enriched air from RTG to building and CO<sub>2 </sub>enriched air from build­ing to RTG) and water in order to improve the building’s metabolism. A tight human-plant sym­biosis is created such way. iRTGs perfect this architecture by actively controlling the energy, gazes and water flows, by collecting the available renewable energy resources (geothermal, sun, wind) and by adding Internet of Things IOT features to the system, in order to connect it to a surrounding Smart City. This way iRTGs may achieve an efficient integrated management of energy, gases and water, using just existing technologies: heat pumps (water to water for building’s basement and air to air for green­house), solar panels, IOT equipment, etc., controlled in a smart/intelligent manner. If a Smart City is composed mostly of iRTG buildings it becomes a Smart Green Skyline City, with low carbon foot­print and high carbon offset. The paper provides a mathematical iRTG model.</p> Marius Balas Jelena Nikolic Ramona Lile Mihaela Popa Roxana Beiu Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 2 1 15 28 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.02 BIOCHAR AS AN ECO-ADDITION IN WASTEWATER AND WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES IN NON-URBANIZED AREAS https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.1.Mazurkiewicz <p>Especially in non-urbanized areas there is a need to use various waste products, e.g. from agriculture, households, etc. New products that are created in a simple way should be able to be used many times without the use of complicated and expensive technology.</p> <p>This article presents the potential of biochar used in wastewater treatment processes and sludge management in small installations - for the maximum maintained number of users equal to 50. The possibilities of two substances used in sewage management processes, such as char and biochar will be presented. These substances, produced from pyrolysis, are stable carbon-rich compounds which have various beneficial applications like soil conditioning, remediation and wastewater treatment. In particular, biochar originating from wastewater sludge pyrolysis, possible to be generated at the place of formation, was taken into account. In addition, ways to increase the reliability of the treatment plant with biochar based filters are described.</p> <p>Attention was paid to the various applications of biochar and its effectiveness in the above-mentioned processes, for various pollutants, typical ones and for more demanding installations (high-efficient treatment), among others:</p> <p>-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; study of biochar filters as a replacement or complement for mineral filters for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds from wastewater in onsite wastewater treatment plants (OWTP’s). Results from the works of biodegradation, adsorption and a combination of these processes on the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds wastewater in biochar filters will be presented. worked under typical for onsite wastewater treatment plants conditions e.g. infiltration beds. Various variants of tested installations will be presented (with different forms of biochar and on various medium)</p> <p>-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; study of char and biochar use for different heavy metals after being filtered through biochar and char filters.</p> <p>-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; study of different forms of biochar, derived from natural, easily accessible sources, which can be easily reused in the environment as a fertilizer or biocompost, for example from: sludge from onsite wastewater treatment plants, Miscanthus, rice husks and wood chips, which differ in composition, porosity, active surface, sorption potential, and finally in the effectiveness of retaining various contamination.</p> Mazurkiewicz Jakub Damian Janczak Dawid Wojcieszak Sebastian Kujawiak Przemysław Zakrzewski Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 2 1 1 14 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.01 HIGH-THROUGHPUT SEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL POPULATIONS IN ARCTIC ROCK SAMPLE https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.3.gupta <p>Recent developments in the existing molecular genetic tools have augmented our current understanding towards the deleterious effects of nanoparticles on human health. During building construction, the rapid generation of nanoparticles has greatly affected to human with severe toxicity by generating free radicals inside their body as potential health hazards. However, there is still need of analyzing nanoparticle toxicity based on the type of microbial diversity present on surface and its potential impacts on human health. In this study, we used rocks as raw material collected from Arkhangelsk (arctic) region of Russia and fabricated into particles of nanometer range in size by planetary ball milling. The paper presents data of the elemental composition on the basis of which the value of the specific mass energy of atomization of the raw material of the rock was calculated. The energy parameters of the micro- and nanosystems of the sample were calculated: free surface energy and surface activity.</p> <p>These nanoparticles were showing minimal cytotoxicity to human embryonic kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner. The high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to perform 16S rRNA metagenomic study for determining the type of microbial diversity present on nanoparticle’s surface. The first highest abundance was found for actinobacteria at phylum taxonomic level indicating a population of gram + ve bacteria having economic importance to human. The second highest abundance was seen for proteobacteria at similar taxonomic level exhibiting population of gram - ve bacteria causing pathogenicity in human. The highest abundance of top 25 microbial species was also discussed in this study. In future, this metagenomic study will also identify other microbial species based on 18S rRNA sequencing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Piyush Kumar Gupta Rama Shanker Verma Maria Frolova Arkady Ayzenshtadt Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 2 1 29 38 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.03 ORE CONTROL OF KHIZOVAARA STRUCTURE DEPOSITS https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.2.nikiforov <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Ore-controlling factors determine the patterns of formation and localization of mineralization within ore regions and deposits. The need for this study arises from the importance of integrated assessment of mineral resources and improvement of metasomatic formation techniques. This is especially important for&nbsp; geological materials which are mined for their direct commercial value (industrial materials). This article is devoted to the study of the ore control of complex industrial minerals. The Khizovaara structure belongs to the Tikshozero greenstone belt. Within the structure, a multistage metamorphism and metasomatism processes are manifested. The totality of lithological, structural and petrologic ore control factors determines the existence within the structure of several deposits. These are deposits of industrial minerals, such as garnet, quartz, muscovite, kyanite, staurolite. In almost all cases, the ores are complex. The following objects were studied: Southern Lens (kyanite + quartz) deposit, Northern lens (kyanite + quartz) deposit, East Khizovaara (muscovite + quartz) deposit, Vysota-181 (garnet + staurolite + kyanite + muscovite + quartz) deposit, ore occurence Fuxit (decorative rocks). For the ores of each site, the processes of regional metamorphism of the amphibolite facies of kyanite-biotite and muscovite-chlorite-kyanite subfacies are important. Metamorphism, tectonic regime and geological connection with rocks &nbsp;has been studied as a ore control factor, based on this, data on the quantitative distribution of industrial minerals of metamorphic genesis have been obtained. Acidic and alkaline metasomatites of each site are considered. On the basis of these data, metasomatic processes that lead to the formation of complex ores are revealed. The process of superposition of metasomatosis products of the late stage on the products of early stage metasomatosis was studied. This process leads to the formation of complex ores of three or four minerals. The result of the work is a general scheme of metamorphic and metasomatic ores control</p> Alexander Nikiforov Copyright (c) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 2 1 11 24 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.02 BIOFUEL VIA INTERESTERIFICATION OF RAPESEED OIL WITH METHYL ACETATE IN PRESENCE OF POTASSIUM t-BUTOXIDE/THF https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.1.kampars <p>Transesterification does not allow to make full conversion of oil to biodiesel because the by-product glycerol cannot be included in the composition of biofuel. Interesterification constitutes a full conversion process with production of triacetin (TA) instead of glycerol, which can be included in the composition of biofuel and allows to increase its yield. Both interesterification and transesterification effectively occur only in presence of catalysts. Results of the investigation of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts indicate the superior importance of catalyst solubility in starting reaction mixture. Partial solubility can remarkably lower the activity of homogeneous catalyst and extremely increase that of formally heterogeneous one. The reaction mixture of interesterification reaction is less polar than that of transesterification, and potassium <em>tert</em>-butoxide (t-BuOK) should be more appropriate catalyst for interesterification than sodium methoxide which is used in most cases. The catalytic system t-BuOK/t-BuOH substantially increases the yield of TA and changes the properties of obtained biofuel. Whereas the content of the TA in the interesterification reaction mixture does not achieve the same level from the theoretically predicted as the FAME, the occurrence of side reaction between t-BuOH and TA cannot be excluded. <em>This paper presents a</em> study of the interesterification of rapeseed oil in presence of catalytic system t-BuOK/THF (catalytic system without alcohols) with the aim of establishing the influence of aprotic tetrahydrofuran to the proceeding the reaction, composition of reaction mixtures and their fuel properties. Obtained results show that the absence of alcoholic hydroxyl groups in the catalytic system insufficiently increases the activity of catalytic system but fails to increase the yield of FAME.</p> Valdis Kampars Zane Abelniece Ruta Kampare Copyright (c) 2019 Valdis Kampars, Zane Abelniece, Ruta Kampare (Author) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 2 1 1 10 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.01