SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps <p><strong>SWS Journal of Earth &amp; Planetary Sciences</strong> is a quarterly multidisciplinary peer-reviewed academic research Journal, published&nbsp;on print and online in Vienna, Austria by SGEM WORLD SCIENCE (SWS) International Society.<br><strong>The primary objectives</strong>&nbsp;of the Journal are to publish original scientific articles, dedicated to the main innovative scientific areas of Earth and Planetary Sciences, based in 6 scientific sections:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Science and Technologies in Geology, Exploration and Mining;</li> <li class="show">Informatics, Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing;</li> <li class="show">Water Resources. Forest, Marine and Ocean Ecosystems;</li> <li class="show">Energy and Clean Technologies;</li> <li class="show">Ecology, Economics, Education and Legislation Ecosystems;</li> <li class="show">Nano, Bio, Green and Space - Technologies for a Sustainable Future.</li> </ul> <p><strong>The Journal scope</strong>&nbsp;covers significant developments in all areas of Earth and Planetary Sciences, from geology and mining, water, forest, marine and ocean ecosystems, trough ecology to the Nano, Bio and Green Sciences and the Space as a formation of planets and the evolution of life.</p> <p><strong>The global objectives</strong>&nbsp;of the Journal are to propose potential solutions of problems related to the global changes, to contribute to the integration of environmental consideration into the decision-making process - hoping to ensure that present consumption will not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.</p> <p>The SWS Journal of Earth &amp; Planetary Sciences is available online as well as on <strong>print version.</strong></p> <p>This year the Journal will publish <strong>3 issues</strong> with awarded peer reviewed articles and from the 2020 year will be opened to all manuscripts related to these fields.</p> SWS Society en-US SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES 2664-0090 <p><a title="CC BY-NC-ND" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="https://eps.sgemworld.at/images/cc.png"></a></p> THE EFFECT OF MICROFRACTURING IN GABBRO-DOLERITES ON THEIR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.4.shekov <p>Simple and cheap methods for the study of building stone deposits for the production of blocks of commercial size can be used to make geological work more efficient. However, physical processes in a massif are hard to understand when doing geophysical research, and the effect of microstructural parameters, mainly the microfracturing of rocks, on geophysical field indices is poorly understood.</p> <p>The authors have studied the impact of microfracturing on the physico-mechanical properties on coarse- to giant-grained rapakivi granites from the Salmi massif, Fennoscandian Shield. The goal of the present study is to assess the physical and physico-mechanical parameters in fine- and medium-grained quartz-free rocks.</p> <p>The authors have studied the various physical and physico-mechanical indices of gabbro-dolerites from the Ropruchei sill (Fennoscandian Shield, within the deposit prospected and revealed the effect of microfracturing indices on them.</p> <p>The study of these properties have shown that microfracturing in gabbro-dolerites is an essential factor which forms the physical parameters of a rock. The testing of this rock type has shown the rate of travel of an elastic wave is clearly related to the microfracturing of samples.</p> <p>The magnetic properties of gabbro-dolerite are due to high concentrations of titanomagnetite, the mineral grains of which formed upon the crystallization of magma during its interstratal intrusion. The distribution of titanomagnetite, based on size and concentration in the rock, depends on liquation conditions in the active stress field. The dependence of the microfracturing of gabbro-dolerites on their iron concentration (FeO+Fe2O3) shows that these «damages» appeared at a ‘brittle” stage in the evolution of the massif in the form of microfractures, the structural parameters of which have inherited the parameters of the stress and deformation field which existed in the massif at that time and which accumulated iron.</p> <p>As a result, microfracturing has a considerable effect on the parameters of the electromagnetic indices of the massif by accumulating iron oxides in the pores, and the higher the index, the higher the geophysical medium indices.</p> <p>Understanding of the physical problem, which accompanies the formation of a gabbro-dolerite complex, helps conduct the geophysical study of a massif, interpret data more objectively and more accurately delineate massive zones in the medium that could be used as high-quality building materials.</p> Vitali Shekov O. Myasnikova Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 1 2 39 50 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.04 BIOCHAR AS AN ECO-ADDITION IN WASTEWATER AND WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES IN NON-URBANIZED AREAS https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.1.Mazurkiewicz <p>Especially in non-urbanized areas there is a need to use various waste products, e.g. from agriculture, households, etc. New products that are created in a simple way should be able to be used many times without the use of complicated and expensive technology.</p> <p>This article presents the potential of biochar used in wastewater treatment processes and sludge management in small installations - for the maximum maintained number of users equal to 50. The possibilities of two substances used in sewage management processes, such as char and biochar will be presented. These substances, produced from pyrolysis, are stable carbon-rich compounds which have various beneficial applications like soil conditioning, remediation and wastewater treatment. In particular, biochar originating from wastewater sludge pyrolysis, possible to be generated at the place of formation, was taken into account. In addition, ways to increase the reliability of the treatment plant with biochar based filters are described.</p> <p>Attention was paid to the various applications of biochar and its effectiveness in the above-mentioned processes, for various pollutants, typical ones and for more demanding installations (high-efficient treatment), among others:</p> <p>-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; study of biochar filters as a replacement or complement for mineral filters for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds from wastewater in onsite wastewater treatment plants (OWTP’s). Results from the works of biodegradation, adsorption and a combination of these processes on the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds wastewater in biochar filters will be presented. worked under typical for onsite wastewater treatment plants conditions e.g. infiltration beds. Various variants of tested installations will be presented (with different forms of biochar and on various medium)</p> <p>-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; study of char and biochar use for different heavy metals after being filtered through biochar and char filters.</p> <p>-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; study of different forms of biochar, derived from natural, easily accessible sources, which can be easily reused in the environment as a fertilizer or biocompost, for example from: sludge from onsite wastewater treatment plants, Miscanthus, rice husks and wood chips, which differ in composition, porosity, active surface, sorption potential, and finally in the effectiveness of retaining various contamination.</p> Mazurkiewicz Jakub Damian Janczak Dawid Wojcieszak Sebastian Kujawiak Przemysław Zakrzewski Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 1 2 1 14 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.01 HIGH-THROUGHPUT SEQUENCING ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL POPULATIONS IN ARCTIC ROCK SAMPLE https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.3.gupta <p>Recent developments in the existing molecular genetic tools have augmented our current understanding towards the deleterious effects of nanoparticles on human health. During building construction, the rapid generation of nanoparticles has greatly affected to human with severe toxicity by generating free radicals inside their body as potential health hazards. However, there is still need of analyzing nanoparticle toxicity based on the type of microbial diversity present on surface and its potential impacts on human health. In this study, we used rocks as raw material collected from Arkhangelsk (arctic) region of Russia and fabricated into particles of nanometer range in size by planetary ball milling. The paper presents data of the elemental composition on the basis of which the value of the specific mass energy of atomization of the raw material of the rock was calculated. The energy parameters of the micro- and nanosystems of the sample were calculated: free surface energy and surface activity.</p> <p>These nanoparticles were showing minimal cytotoxicity to human embryonic kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner. The high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to perform 16S rRNA metagenomic study for determining the type of microbial diversity present on nanoparticle’s surface. The first highest abundance was found for actinobacteria at phylum taxonomic level indicating a population of gram + ve bacteria having economic importance to human. The second highest abundance was seen for proteobacteria at similar taxonomic level exhibiting population of gram - ve bacteria causing pathogenicity in human. The highest abundance of top 25 microbial species was also discussed in this study. In future, this metagenomic study will also identify other microbial species based on 18S rRNA sequencing.</p> Piyush Kumar Gupta Rama Shanker Verma Maria Frolova Arkady Ayzenshtadt Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 1 2 29 38 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.03 INTELLIGENT ROOFTOP GREENHOUSES AND GREEN SKYLINE CITIES https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.2.2.balas <p>The paper proposes a new concept of green building, able to oppose the global warming, the Intelligent Rooftop Greenhouse iRTG, as a development of the Integrated Rooftop Greenhouse IRTG. Our approach is to re­place conventional roofs with IRTGs, which are constructively con­nected with the interior of the building by flows of energy, gazes (mainly O<sub>2</sub> enriched air from RTG to building and CO<sub>2 </sub>enriched air from build­ing to RTG) and water in order to improve the building’s metabolism. A tight human-plant sym­biosis is created such way. iRTGs perfect this architecture by actively controlling the energy, gazes and water flows, by collecting the available renewable energy resources (geothermal, sun, wind) and by adding Internet of Things IOT features to the system, in order to connect it to a surrounding Smart City. This way iRTGs may achieve an efficient integrated management of energy, gases and water, using just existing technologies: heat pumps (water to water for building’s basement and air to air for green­house), solar panels, IOT equipment, etc., controlled in a smart/intelligent manner. If a Smart City is composed mostly of iRTG buildings it becomes a Smart Green Skyline City, with low carbon foot­print and high carbon offset. The paper provides a mathematical iRTG model.</p> Marius Balas Jelena Nikolic Ramona Lile Mihaela Popa Roxana Beiu Copyright (c) 2019 SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-10-01 2019-10-01 1 2 15 28 10.35603/eps2019/issue2.02 ORE CONTROL OF KHIZOVAARA STRUCTURE DEPOSITS https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.2.nikiforov <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Ore-controlling factors determine the patterns of formation and localization of mineralization within ore regions and deposits. The need for this study arises from the importance of integrated assessment of mineral resources and improvement of metasomatic formation techniques. This is especially important for&nbsp; geological materials which are mined for their direct commercial value (industrial materials). This article is devoted to the study of the ore control of complex industrial minerals. The Khizovaara structure belongs to the Tikshozero greenstone belt. Within the structure, a multistage metamorphism and metasomatism processes are manifested. The totality of lithological, structural and petrologic ore control factors determines the existence within the structure of several deposits. These are deposits of industrial minerals, such as garnet, quartz, muscovite, kyanite, staurolite. In almost all cases, the ores are complex. The following objects were studied: Southern Lens (kyanite + quartz) deposit, Northern lens (kyanite + quartz) deposit, East Khizovaara (muscovite + quartz) deposit, Vysota-181 (garnet + staurolite + kyanite + muscovite + quartz) deposit, ore occurence Fuxit (decorative rocks). For the ores of each site, the processes of regional metamorphism of the amphibolite facies of kyanite-biotite and muscovite-chlorite-kyanite subfacies are important. Metamorphism, tectonic regime and geological connection with rocks &nbsp;has been studied as a ore control factor, based on this, data on the quantitative distribution of industrial minerals of metamorphic genesis have been obtained. Acidic and alkaline metasomatites of each site are considered. On the basis of these data, metasomatic processes that lead to the formation of complex ores are revealed. The process of superposition of metasomatosis products of the late stage on the products of early stage metasomatosis was studied. This process leads to the formation of complex ores of three or four minerals. The result of the work is a general scheme of metamorphic and metasomatic ores control</p> Alexander Nikiforov Copyright (c) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 1 2 11 24 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.02 BIOFUEL VIA INTERESTERIFICATION OF RAPESEED OIL WITH METHYL ACETATE IN PRESENCE OF POTASSIUM t-BUTOXIDE/THF https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.1.kampars <p>Transesterification does not allow to make full conversion of oil to biodiesel because the by-product glycerol cannot be included in the composition of biofuel. Interesterification constitutes a full conversion process with production of triacetin (TA) instead of glycerol, which can be included in the composition of biofuel and allows to increase its yield. Both interesterification and transesterification effectively occur only in presence of catalysts. Results of the investigation of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts indicate the superior importance of catalyst solubility in starting reaction mixture. Partial solubility can remarkably lower the activity of homogeneous catalyst and extremely increase that of formally heterogeneous one. The reaction mixture of interesterification reaction is less polar than that of transesterification, and potassium <em>tert</em>-butoxide (t-BuOK) should be more appropriate catalyst for interesterification than sodium methoxide which is used in most cases. The catalytic system t-BuOK/t-BuOH substantially increases the yield of TA and changes the properties of obtained biofuel. Whereas the content of the TA in the interesterification reaction mixture does not achieve the same level from the theoretically predicted as the FAME, the occurrence of side reaction between t-BuOH and TA cannot be excluded. <em>This paper presents a</em> study of the interesterification of rapeseed oil in presence of catalytic system t-BuOK/THF (catalytic system without alcohols) with the aim of establishing the influence of aprotic tetrahydrofuran to the proceeding the reaction, composition of reaction mixtures and their fuel properties. Obtained results show that the absence of alcoholic hydroxyl groups in the catalytic system insufficiently increases the activity of catalytic system but fails to increase the yield of FAME.</p> Valdis Kampars Zane Abelniece Ruta Kampare Copyright (c) 2019 Valdis Kampars, Zane Abelniece, Ruta Kampare (Author) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 1 2 1 10 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.01 DYNAMICS OF SOIL NUTRIENT STATUS OF HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY IN LATVIA, 2006-2017 https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.4.osvalde <p>In Latvia, the first commercial highbush blueberry (<em>Vaccinium corymbosum</em> L.) plantings have been established on a few hectares at the end of the 1990<sup>th</sup>. Since then, a remarkable growth has noticed and today the total cultivated area reaches 280 hectares. An increasing market demand for fresh and processed berries provides a future upward trend in the development of blueberry crop in Latvia. In general, blueberry is a highly specialized crop that has definite soil agrochemical and climatic requirements. There are two main soil types used for blueberry cultivation in Latvia: well-drained acid sandy soils with high organic matter content and sphagnum peat soils. Evaluation and management of plant mineral nutrition in such diverse soils are based on guidelines for the particular type of growing medium. A long-term study (2006-2017, divided into three periods: 2006-2009, 2010-2013, 2014-2017) was done to find out the nutrient status of blueberry soils in Latvia.&nbsp; In total, 330 mineral and peat soil samples were collected from the upper layer of soils (0 - 20 cm) across blueberry plantations in Latvia and tested on plant available nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B), as well as soil pH<sub>KCl</sub> and electrical conductivity. In general, more than 50% of blueberry soils had low content of N, S, Mo and B, as well as a high level of Mn over the study period of 2006-2017. Less than 25% of samples in the optimum range indicated on N as the most deficient nutrient.</p> Anita Osvalde Gunta Cekstere Andis Karlsons Jolanta Pormale Copyright (c) 2019 Anita Osvalde, Gunta Cekstere, Andis Karlsons, Jolanta Pormale (Author) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 1 2 38 48 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.04 HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING ROLE IN ENHANCING CROP MAPPING: A COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT SUPERVISED SEGMENTATION ALGORITHMS https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.3.awad <p>In agriculture sector there is need for cheap, fast, and accurate data and technologies to help decision makers to find solutions for many agricultural problems. Many solutions depend significantly on the accuracy and efficiency of the crop mapping and crop yield estimation processes. High resolution spectral remote sensing can improve substantially crop mapping by reducing similarities between different crop types which has similar ecological conditions. This paper presents a new approach of combining a new tool, hyperspectral images and technologies to enhance crop mapping. &nbsp;The tool includes spectral signatures database for the major crops in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin and other important metadata and processing functions. To prove the efficiency of the new approach, major crops such as “winter wheat” and “spring potato” are mapped using the spectral signatures database in the new tool, three different supervised algorithms, and CHRIS-Proba hyperspectral satellite images. The evaluation of the results showed that deploying different hyperspectral data and technologies can improve crop mapping. The improvements can be noticed with the increase of the accuracy to more than 86% with the use of the supervised algorithm Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM).</p> Mohamad M. Awad Copyright (c) 2019 Mohamad M. Awad (Author) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 1 2 25 37 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.03 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND HUMAN RIGHT VIOLATION IN REPUBLIC OF KOSOVO https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.5.leka <p>The Republic of Kosovo is one of the newest states in the world. Separated from a former communist federation – Yugoslavia and occupied for over a decade by Serbia, it turned out to be free after a systematic destruction and with great consequences in all respects, including the environment. And of course, being a new state, made Republic of Kosovo to inherit many problems, which were very difficult to solve, while the environmental issues did not even come into the agenda ever to be discussed, which should not have been done as it was. In other words, having many major problems, the environmental issue as to the international community that has governed Kosovo for more than a decade, as well as for Kosovo's institutions itself, has never become an issue of importance to be discussed nor to be protected. Almost same happened in every country, which was under the international community protection, as for them it is the importance of security rather than environment protection in a country, where they are serving and far from their home country. Even after some positive developments in Kosovo's environmental legislation, by adopting the law on environmental protection, by creating a state agency for environmental protection, by creating environmental directorates in municipalities, etc., which developments and steps failed to become successful, because they lacked their implementation in practice, and cases like this were also in Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, etc.. ..</p> Dukagjin Leka Sabiha Shala Selim Daku Copyright (c) 2019 Dukagjin Leka, Sabiha Shala, Selim Daku (Author) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 1 2 49 57 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.05 BIM AND BUILDING CONSTRUCTION DESIGN IN GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE https://eps.sgemworld.at/index.php/eps/article/view/eps2019.1.6.fulop <p>Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the reality of today’s architecture. Building Information Modelling (BIM) technique is a great opportunity for communication and data management in virtual space. BIM cloud-based collaboration provides up-to-date information, where project data is at the centre of the process and delivered to the point of the work, makes building workflows more efficient and effective, especially combined with the representational, analytic, and reality capture capabilities. The powerful computer hardware and software can store, transmit and evaluate huge amount of information, but this virtual universe sometimes seems to be too much and too complicated for architects, engineers and contractors (AEC) as single individuals.</p> <p>Widespread awareness of climate change, pollution, depletion of natural resources and huge amount of technical opportunities on global market have triggered professional demands for architects, in sustainable design. Adaptation is a crucial factor in sustainable architecture. Adequacy of decisions depends on the data applied. Systematization of all relevant information, aspects and tools from the very first design step is a crucial part of contemporary architecture.</p> <p>Building design and construction use significant quantities of natural resources and materials and the products we select affect the quality of the spaces we inhabit. Careful consideration of environment and construction parameters from the earliest stage of the design process can have an enormous impact on reducing subsequent operating costs, protecting the nature and our health.</p> <p>Sustainability in architectural design can be more effective based on a newly developing BIM managed integrated multilevel complex approach and database. It should consist of construction and material parameters, requirements and their qualification fitted to the design steps and systemized according to the performance based evaluation and building anatomy.</p> Susanna Fulop Copyright (c) 2019-06-01 2019-06-01 1 2 58 67 10.35603/eps2019/issue1.06