Main Article Content
Especially in non-urbanized areas there is a need to use various waste products, e.g. from agriculture, households, etc. New products that are created in a simple way should be able to be used many times without the use of complicated and expensive technology.
This article presents the potential of biochar used in wastewater treatment processes and sludge management in small installations - for the maximum maintained number of users equal to 50. The possibilities of two substances used in sewage management processes, such as char and biochar will be presented. These substances, produced from pyrolysis, are stable carbon-rich compounds which have various beneficial applications like soil conditioning, remediation and wastewater treatment. In particular, biochar originating from wastewater sludge pyrolysis, possible to be generated at the place of formation, was taken into account. In addition, ways to increase the reliability of the treatment plant with biochar based filters are described.
Attention was paid to the various applications of biochar and its effectiveness in the above-mentioned processes, for various pollutants, typical ones and for more demanding installations (high-efficient treatment), among others:
- study of biochar filters as a replacement or complement for mineral filters for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds from wastewater in onsite wastewater treatment plants (OWTP’s). Results from the works of biodegradation, adsorption and a combination of these processes on the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds wastewater in biochar filters will be presented. worked under typical for onsite wastewater treatment plants conditions e.g. infiltration beds. Various variants of tested installations will be presented (with different forms of biochar and on various medium)
- study of char and biochar use for different heavy metals after being filtered through biochar and char filters.
- study of different forms of biochar, derived from natural, easily accessible sources, which can be easily reused in the environment as a fertilizer or biocompost, for example from: sludge from onsite wastewater treatment plants, Miscanthus, rice husks and wood chips, which differ in composition, porosity, active surface, sorption potential, and finally in the effectiveness of retaining various contamination.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017. Wastewater: The Untapped Resource; Unesco Publishing: Paris, France, 2017.
- Kaetzl K., Lübken M., Gehring T., Wichern M. Efficient Low-Cost Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater Using Biochar and Woodchip Filters. Water 10, 818, 2018.
- Makowska M., Mazurkiewicz J.: Treatment of wastewater from service areas at motorways. Archives of Environmental Protection, 4, 80-89, 2016.
- Vassos T. Liquid Waste Management Plan. Technical Memorandum #8. Emerging Contaminants, 2017. https://cumberland.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/TM-8-Emerging-Contaminants-.pdf
- Pulka J., Wiśniewski D, Gołaszewski J., Białowiec A. Is the biochar produced from sewage sludge a good quality solid fuel? Arch. of Env. Prot., 42, 4, 125-134, 2016.
- Kelessidis A., Stasinakis A.S. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries. Waste Manag.32, 1186–1195, 2012.
- Liu Z., Singer S., Tong Y., Kimbell L., Anderson E., Hughes M., Zitomer D., McNamara P. Characteristics and applications of biochars derived from wastewater solids. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 90, 650–664, 2018.
- Qambrani N.A., Rahman M.M., Won S., Shim S., Ra C. Biochar properties and eco-friendly applications for climate change mitigation, waste management, and wastewater treatment: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 79, 255–273, 2017.
- Malińska K., Zabochnicka-Świątek M., Dach J. Effects of biochar amendment on ammonia emission during composting of sewage sludge. Ecological Engineering, 71, 474-478, 2014,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.07.012.
- Janczak D., Malińska K., Czekała W., Cáceres R., Lewicki A., Dach J. Biochar to reduce ammonia emissions in gaseous and liquid phase during composting of poultry manure with wheat straw. Waste Management, 66, 36-45. 2017 doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2017.04.033
- Czekała W, Jeżowska A, Chełkowski D. The Use of Biochar for the Production of Organic Fertilizers. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 20(1):1-8. 2019; doi:10.12911/22998993/93869.
- Mullen CA, Boateng AA., Goldberg NM., Lima IM., Laird DA., Hicks KB. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis. Biomass and Bioenergy 34, 67–74. 2010; doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.09.012
- Yue Y., Lin Q., Irfan M., Chen Q., Zhao X., and Li G. Slow pyrolysis as a promising approach for producing biochar from sunflower straw. BioRes. 13(4), 7455-7469, (2018)
- Nargotra P., Vishal S., Mahak G., Simranjeet K., Bijender B. Application of ionic liquid and alkali pretreatment for enhancing saccharification of sunflower stalk biomass for potential biofuel-ethanol production. Bioresource Technology. 267. 2018; 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.07.070.
- Wu W., Yang M., Feng Q., McGrouther K., Wang H., Lu H., Chen Y. Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment. Biomass Bioenerg. 47, 268-276 , 2012; doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.09.034
- Final Report Summary - PYROCHAR (PYROlysis based process to convert small WWTP sewage sludge into useful bioCHAR). France, 2016.
- Marschner B., Werner S., Alfes K., Lübken M. Potential dual use of biochar for wastewater treatment and soil amelioration. Geophysical Research Abstracts EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria. http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-11260.pdf
- Czekała W., Malińska K., Cáceres R., Janczak D., Dach J., Lewicki A. Co-composting of poultry manure mixtures amended with biochar – The effect of biochar on temperature and C-CO2 emission. Bioresource Technology, 200, 921-927, 2016.
- Warrelmann J., Filser J., Dobner I., Siol A. Entwicklung eines innovativen Pflanzenfilters zur Eliminierung von Arzneimittelrückständen im Ablauf kleiner Kläranlagen und dezentraler Kleinkläranlagen (2. und 3. Phase) Projektkennblatt Der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt, 2016.
- Mohan D., Sarswat A., Sik Ok Y., Pittman Jr. C.U. Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent – A critical review. Bioresource Technology, 2014.
- Saletnik, B.; Zaguła, G.; Bajcar, M.; Tarapatskyy, M.; Bobula, G.; Puchalski, C. Biochar as a Multifunctional Component of the Environment—A Review. Appl. Sci. 9, 1139. 2019.
- Mohan D., Pittman CU. Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents—A critical review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142, 1–2, 1-53, 2007; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.006.
- Regkouzas P., Diamadopoulos E. Adsorption of Selected Organic Micro-Pollutants on Sewage Sludge Biochar. Chemosphere 840–851. 2019; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.165.
- Wojcieszak D., Przybył J., Lewicki A., Ludwiczak A., Przybylak A., Boniecki P., Koszela K., Zaborowicz M., Przybył K., Witaszek K. Use of neural image analysis methods in the process to determine the dry matter content in the compost. Proceedings of SPIE - Los Angeles, 2015.
- Mazurkiewicz J., Janczak D., Wojcieszak D., Kujawiak S., Zakrzewski P. Biochar Potential in Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Processes; 18, pp 219–226. 2018;
- Malińska K, Dach J. Biochar as a supplementary material for biogas production. Inżynieria Ekologiczna. (41):117-124. 2015; doi:10.12912/23920629/1835.
- Kujawiak S. The influence of hydraulic conditions in airlift moving bed biofilm reactors on the efficiency of wastewater treatment. PhD thesis University of Zielona Góra.2018.
- Mazurkiewicz J., Zakrzewski P. The use of computer simulations to improve the efficiency of small SBR wastewater treatment plants. Monograph: Water supply, quality and water protection, edited Zbysława Dymaczewskiego, Joanny Jeż-Walkowiak, PZITS Poznań, 2012.
- Mazurkiewicz J., Zakrzewski P. An advanced control system for a household sewage treatment plant. Monograph: Water supply, quality and water protection, edited Marka M. Sozańskiego, PZITS Poznań, 2010.
- Mazurkiewicz J., Zakrzewski P., Antonowicz A. Assistant to the sewage treatment plant operator. Tech show – Conference - Innovation for business, Poznań Science and Technology Park, as part of the “Innovation Incubator+” project, , 2019.
- Thompson K.A., Shimabuku K.K., Kearns J.P., Knappe D.R.U., Summers R.S., Cook S.M. Environmental Comparison of Biochar and Activated Carbon for Tertiary Wastewater Treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 50 (20), 11253–11262, 2016.