BIOCHAR AS AN ECO-ADDITION IN WASTEWATER AND WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES IN NON-URBANIZED AREAS

  • PhD. Eng. Mazurkiewicz Jakub Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Biosystems Engineering
  • PhD. Eng. Damian Janczak Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Biosystems Engineering
  • PhD. Eng. Dawid Wojcieszak Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Biosystems Engineering
  • PhD. Eng. Sebastian Kujawiak Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering
  • PhD. Eng. Przemysław Zakrzewski Poznan University Of Technology, Institute of Computing Science
Keywords: biochar, wastewater treatment, wastewater sludge, non-urbanized areas

Abstract

Especially in non-urbanized areas there is a need to use various waste products, e.g. from agriculture, households, etc. New products that are created in a simple way should be able to be used many times without the use of complicated and expensive technology.

This article presents the potential of biochar used in wastewater treatment processes and sludge management in small installations - for the maximum maintained number of users equal to 50. The possibilities of two substances used in sewage management processes, such as char and biochar will be presented. These substances, produced from pyrolysis, are stable carbon-rich compounds which have various beneficial applications like soil conditioning, remediation and wastewater treatment. In particular, biochar originating from wastewater sludge pyrolysis, possible to be generated at the place of formation, was taken into account. In addition, ways to increase the reliability of the treatment plant with biochar based filters are described.

Attention was paid to the various applications of biochar and its effectiveness in the above-mentioned processes, for various pollutants, typical ones and for more demanding installations (high-efficient treatment), among others:

-           study of biochar filters as a replacement or complement for mineral filters for removal of pharmaceutically active compounds from wastewater in onsite wastewater treatment plants (OWTP’s). Results from the works of biodegradation, adsorption and a combination of these processes on the removal of pharmaceutically active compounds wastewater in biochar filters will be presented. worked under typical for onsite wastewater treatment plants conditions e.g. infiltration beds. Various variants of tested installations will be presented (with different forms of biochar and on various medium)

-           study of char and biochar use for different heavy metals after being filtered through biochar and char filters.

-           study of different forms of biochar, derived from natural, easily accessible sources, which can be easily reused in the environment as a fertilizer or biocompost, for example from: sludge from onsite wastewater treatment plants, Miscanthus, rice husks and wood chips, which differ in composition, porosity, active surface, sorption potential, and finally in the effectiveness of retaining various contamination.

Author Biographies

PhD. Eng. Mazurkiewicz Jakub, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Biosystems Engineering

PhD. Eng. Mazurkiewicz Jakub has studied environmental engineering at the University of Life Sciences, Poland and at the Humboldt University in Berlin (2003-2004), Germany. He did his doctoral degree at the Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Poland. His main research activity is management and treatment of leachate and wastewater from fermentation, composting and sewage treatment processes, and the techno-economic analysis. Investment expert in modern sewage treatment plants. In the last two years he was the manager of 3 R&D&I projects in the field of environmental engineering.

PhD. Eng. Damian Janczak, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Biosystems Engineering

PhD. Eng. Damian Janczak : In 2010, I graduated from the Poznań University of Life Sciences, field of study: agricultural and forest technique, MSc thesis entitled "Efficiency of management technology of digestate waste from biogas plants."

In 2014 I completed PhD studies at the Poznan University of Life Sciences and defended my doctoral dissertation "Technology of biogas production using selected waste materials from vegetables production and processing". My scientific interests are as follows:

-management of waste materials from agri-food processing,

-methane fermentation process,

-composting of organic waste, etc.

PhD. Eng. Dawid Wojcieszak, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Institute of Biosystems Engineering

PhD. Eng. Dawid Wojcieszak is an associate professor in Institute of Biosystems Engineering Poznań University of Life Sciences. The main subject of scientific activity is technology of corn stover harvest for energy production. The main subject of scientific activity is technology of corn stover harvest for energy production and conversion process of corn stover. The newest aim of the studies is selective harvest of corn stover harvest.

PhD. Eng. Sebastian Kujawiak, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineering

PhD. Eng. Sebastian Kujawiak: Graduate of the University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Poznan, field of study in Environmental Engineering in 2012. Ph D. eng., assistant in the Department of Water and Sanitary Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Poznan.

Specialization: water and wastewater treatment technology, air lift pumps.

Author of several scientific publications, contractor of research projects.

PhD. Eng. Przemysław Zakrzewski, Poznan University Of Technology, Institute of Computing Science

Przemysław Zakrzewski recived his Ph.D. from the Poznan University of Technology at Faculty of Computing Science and Management at field of Automation and Robotics in year 2005. The title of his dissertation is „Algorithms for integrated control of the wastewater treatment process using activated sludge”. Since 1996 he is working at Institute of Computing Science at the Poznan University of Technology. His research area is the control, modelling and optimization of wastewater treatment processes and water distribution systems. Recently he is involved in design and implementation of control systems using the Industrial Internet of Things architecture

References

WWAP (United Nations World Water Assessment Programme). The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017. Wastewater: The Untapped Resource; Unesco Publishing: Paris, France, 2017.

Kaetzl K., Lübken M., Gehring T., Wichern M. Efficient Low-Cost Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater Using Biochar and Woodchip Filters. Water 10, 818, 2018.

Makowska M., Mazurkiewicz J.: Treatment of wastewater from service areas at motorways. Archives of Environmental Protection, 4, 80-89, 2016.

Vassos T. Liquid Waste Management Plan. Technical Memorandum #8. Emerging Contaminants, 2017. https://cumberland.ca/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/TM-8-Emerging-Contaminants-.pdf

Pulka J., Wiśniewski D, Gołaszewski J., Białowiec A. Is the biochar produced from sewage sludge a good quality solid fuel? Arch. of Env. Prot., 42, 4, 125-134, 2016.

Kelessidis A., Stasinakis A.S. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries. Waste Manag.32, 1186–1195, 2012.

Liu Z., Singer S., Tong Y., Kimbell L., Anderson E., Hughes M., Zitomer D., McNamara P. Characteristics and applications of biochars derived from wastewater solids. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 90, 650–664, 2018.

Qambrani N.A., Rahman M.M., Won S., Shim S., Ra C. Biochar properties and eco-friendly applications for climate change mitigation, waste management, and wastewater treatment: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 79, 255–273, 2017.

Malińska K., Zabochnicka-Świątek M., Dach J. Effects of biochar amendment on ammonia emission during composting of sewage sludge. Ecological Engineering, 71, 474-478, 2014,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.07.012.

Janczak D., Malińska K., Czekała W., Cáceres R., Lewicki A., Dach J. Biochar to reduce ammonia emissions in gaseous and liquid phase during composting of poultry manure with wheat straw. Waste Management, 66, 36-45. 2017 doi:10.1016/j.wasman.2017.04.033

Czekała W, Jeżowska A, Chełkowski D. The Use of Biochar for the Production of Organic Fertilizers. Journal of Ecological Engineering. 20(1):1-8. 2019; doi:10.12911/22998993/93869.

Mullen CA, Boateng AA., Goldberg NM., Lima IM., Laird DA., Hicks KB. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis. Biomass and Bioenergy 34, 67–74. 2010; doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.09.012

Yue Y., Lin Q., Irfan M., Chen Q., Zhao X., and Li G. Slow pyrolysis as a promising approach for producing biochar from sunflower straw. BioRes. 13(4), 7455-7469, (2018)

Nargotra P., Vishal S., Mahak G., Simranjeet K., Bijender B. Application of ionic liquid and alkali pretreatment for enhancing saccharification of sunflower stalk biomass for potential biofuel-ethanol production. Bioresource Technology. 267. 2018; 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.07.070.

Wu W., Yang M., Feng Q., McGrouther K., Wang H., Lu H., Chen Y. Chemical characterization of rice straw-derived biochar for soil amendment. Biomass Bioenerg. 47, 268-276 , 2012; doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.09.034

Final Report Summary - PYROCHAR (PYROlysis based process to convert small WWTP sewage sludge into useful bioCHAR). France, 2016.

Marschner B., Werner S., Alfes K., Lübken M. Potential dual use of biochar for wastewater treatment and soil amelioration. Geophysical Research Abstracts EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria. http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2013/EGU2013-11260.pdf

Czekała W., Malińska K., Cáceres R., Janczak D., Dach J., Lewicki A. Co-composting of poultry manure mixtures amended with biochar – The effect of biochar on temperature and C-CO2 emission. Bioresource Technology, 200, 921-927, 2016.

Warrelmann J., Filser J., Dobner I., Siol A. Entwicklung eines innovativen Pflanzenfilters zur Eliminierung von Arzneimittelrückständen im Ablauf kleiner Kläranlagen und dezentraler Kleinkläranlagen (2. und 3. Phase) Projektkennblatt Der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt, 2016.

Mohan D., Sarswat A., Sik Ok Y., Pittman Jr. C.U. Organic and inorganic contaminants removal from water with biochar, a renewable, low cost and sustainable adsorbent – A critical review. Bioresource Technology, 2014.

Saletnik, B.; Zaguła, G.; Bajcar, M.; Tarapatskyy, M.; Bobula, G.; Puchalski, C. Biochar as a Multifunctional Component of the Environment—A Review. Appl. Sci. 9, 1139. 2019.

Mohan D., Pittman CU. Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents—A critical review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142, 1–2, 1-53, 2007; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.01.006.

Regkouzas P., Diamadopoulos E. Adsorption of Selected Organic Micro-Pollutants on Sewage Sludge Biochar. Chemosphere 840–851. 2019; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.165.

Wojcieszak D., Przybył J., Lewicki A., Ludwiczak A., Przybylak A., Boniecki P., Koszela K., Zaborowicz M., Przybył K., Witaszek K. Use of neural image analysis methods in the process to determine the dry matter content in the compost. Proceedings of SPIE - Los Angeles, 2015.

Mazurkiewicz J., Janczak D., Wojcieszak D., Kujawiak S., Zakrzewski P. Biochar Potential in Wastewater and Sludge Treatment Processes; 18, pp 219–226. 2018;

Malińska K, Dach J. Biochar as a supplementary material for biogas production. Inżynieria Ekologiczna. (41):117-124. 2015; doi:10.12912/23920629/1835.

Kujawiak S. The influence of hydraulic conditions in airlift moving bed biofilm reactors on the efficiency of wastewater treatment. PhD thesis University of Zielona Góra.2018.

Mazurkiewicz J., Zakrzewski P. The use of computer simulations to improve the efficiency of small SBR wastewater treatment plants. Monograph: Water supply, quality and water protection, edited Zbysława Dymaczewskiego, Joanny Jeż-Walkowiak, PZITS Poznań, 2012.

Mazurkiewicz J., Zakrzewski P. An advanced control system for a household sewage treatment plant. Monograph: Water supply, quality and water protection, edited Marka M. Sozańskiego, PZITS Poznań, 2010.

Mazurkiewicz J., Zakrzewski P., Antonowicz A. Assistant to the sewage treatment plant operator. Tech show – Conference - Innovation for business, Poznań Science and Technology Park, as part of the “Innovation Incubator+” project, , 2019.

Thompson K.A., Shimabuku K.K., Kearns J.P., Knappe D.R.U., Summers R.S., Cook S.M. Environmental Comparison of Biochar and Activated Carbon for Tertiary Wastewater Treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 50 (20), 11253–11262, 2016.

Published
2019-10-01
How to Cite
Jakub, M., Janczak, D., Wojcieszak, D., Kujawiak, S., & Zakrzewski, P. (2019). BIOCHAR AS AN ECO-ADDITION IN WASTEWATER AND WASTEWATER SLUDGE TREATMENT PROCESSES IN NON-URBANIZED AREAS . SWS Journal of EARTH AND PLANETARY SCIENCES, 1(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.35603/eps2019/issue2.01
Section
WATER RESOURCES. FOREST, MARINE AND OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS